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Agri Panchangam

Crop Name:  Tomato

Agriculture Panchangam
Soil and Climatic Conditions:
Well drained sandy loam soil with high level of organic contents is best suitable for tomato cultivation. The optimum temperature is 16 to 27°c The temperature below 16°c and above 27°c are not desirable.
Seed Rate:
Seed rate varies according to the variety (Between 60-200g/Acre).
Seed Treatment:
Treat the seeds with Thiram 3g/kg seed/Metalaxyl 3g/kg seed & after 2 hours add 4g Trichoderma viride culture. During the summer season treat the seeds with Imidacloprid 5g/kg seeds for sucking pest control.
Field Preparation:
Deep ploughing should be done. Land should be levelled before transplanting. Add FYM 6-8 tons during the last ploughing, before transplanting add 8-12 kg Borax so that fruit cracking doesn't occur. Prepare a nursery bed, sow the seeds at a depth of 1-1.5 cm & irrigate the bed with rose can. After that cover with bed with polythene sheet (or) paddy straw. Damping off disease in nursery: Spray copper oxy chloride 2.5g/lit water at 2-3 weeks seedling. Sucking pest in nursery: Add Carbofuran 3G granules (40 sq.mt-100g) at 3 weeks seedling & then irrigate the bed. 2-3 days before transplanting spray Rogor 2ml/lit water + Bavistin 1g/lit water.
Types Of Cultivation:
Direct sowing of tomatoes into the main field is not recommended, because the specific conditions required for adequate germination. Mostly tomato seedlings are transplanted to the main field. 21-25 days seedlings with 3-4 leaves should be transplanted. Transplanted crop has advantages like Damping off, Sucking pest can be controlled in the nursery itself, Seed rate can be reduced, Optimum population can be maintained as only healthy seedlings are used for transplanting.
Spacing:
Rainy season: 60cm x 45cm, winter season: 60cm x 60cm, Summer: 45cm x 30cm row to row and plant to plant.
Intercropping:
Tomato + Marigold (16:1), Tomato + Beans (3:1), During summer season Tomato + Maize (3:2), Border crop like Jowar (or) Bajra (2-3 rows).
Weed Management:
Pre-emergence application of Pendimethalin 50% EC 1.0-1.2 lit in 200 lit water. Metribuzin 300g/200 lit water at 15 days crop.
Water Management:
The most critical stages for irrigation are at Transplanting, Flowering and Fruit development. During summer: Irrigate at an interval of 5-6 days. Kharif and Rabi: Irrigate at an interval of 7-10 days.
Nutrient Management:
During transplanting: 24kg Phosphorous (150 kg SSP), 24kg Potash (40kg MOP). 48-60kg Nitrogen add in 3 spilt doses at 30, 45 & 60 day crop. Add 10kg/Acre ZNSO4 in order not to get Zinc deficiency. At 30, 45th day crop spray ZNSO4 5g/lit water, it increases yield by 20%.
Intercultural Operations:
At 30, 35 days hoeing is mainly intended to control weeds & provide aeration to the soil. Staking (or) Trellising should be done, means supporting the plant with stick so they don't crawl on the ground. Uses of staking: Easy control of pest, Protect the fruits from rodents, Easy harvesting, Increase pollination and higher yield of fruits.
Flowering and Maturity Stages:
Flowering stage is critical stage for irrigation. During the flowering stage spray: 20 g urea/lit water so that 15-20% yield increases. During the flowering stage spray 1 ml Planofix in 4 lit water so that flower or fruit drop doesn't occur during the summer season. Tomatoes have four maturity stages: Green stage: Mature green fruits are generally harvested. Pink stage: Tomatoes turn pink (or) red at the blossom end. Ripe stage: Surface of the most of the fruits is red & soften of the fruits begins. Fully Ripe: Tomatoes have approached maximum colour development and are soft. Starch is charged into sugars.
Harvesting Methods:
Depending upon the purpose for which they are used & market distance, tomatoes are harvested manually by plucking the fruits at different maturity stages. Try to retain calyx to the fruits.
Yield For Different Cultivation Methods:
Yield varies according to the variety on an average of 12 tons/Acre.
Post Harvest Handling:
Precooling: Harvested fruit must be precooled to remove excessive field heat. Sorting & Grading: Grade the produce on the basis of quality factors & Sort out bad, rotten (or) broken from the good produce. Cleaning: Separated produce is cleaned and then dried. Packaging: Pack in bags for convenient handling. Storage: Place the produce in appropriate stores to avoid contamination & spoilage.
Organic Products can be used:
FYM: Reduces the usage of 20-25% Nitrogen Fertilizer. Place Yellow sticky traps in the field in order to monitor the Whitefly. Mix Trichoderma viride culture in 10kg Neem powder + 90kg FYM add during last ploughing. Dip the seedling in Streptocycline 100 PPM (100mg in lit water) and then transplant (Bacterial diseases). Spray Neem Seed Kernel Extract (NSKE) during 30 days to flowering stage with 15 days interval. Place Bird perches 20/Acre (Predatory birds prefer to look for prey in the field crops where they have places to rest).
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