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Agri Panchangam

Crop Name:  Sesame

Agriculture Panchangam
Soil and Climatic Conditions:
The soil needs to be well-drained and lightly loamy. The pH level of 5.5 to 8.0 is best suited for the growth of sesame seeds. Sesame seed is a tropical crop it requires hot climate during its growing period. Ideal temperature for best production is 25 to 30°c .
Seed Rate:
Seed Rate is 2.4 kg/Acre.
Seed Treatment:
Seed treatment with Thiram/Captan/Mancozeb 3g/kg seed.
Field Preparation:
Plough the land 2-4 times & prepare the land with fine tilth & form channels.
Types Of Cultivation:
To facilitate easy seeding & even distribution, seed is mixed with sand (Even distribution in a line).
Spacing:
30cm x 15cm for row to row and plant to plant.
Intercropping:
Sesame + Leguminous crops (4:1). 2.) Sesame + Turmeric (3:2).
Weed Management:
Pre-Emergence herbicides like Pendimethalin 30% EC (or) Alachlor 50% EC 4-5ml/lit water spray any one of these chemicals.
Water Management:
1st irrigation is given after germination. Critical stages for irrigation Flowering, Pod formation, grain filling. Avoid water stagnation during 35-40 to 55-60 days crop.
Nutrient Management:
FYM - 4 tons/Acre Add during the last ploughing. Nitrogen: 16kg, Phosphorous: 8kg, Potash: 8kg (Add half of Nitrogen, full of Phosphorous & Potash during the last ploughing). Add remaining nitrogen at one month crop after removing weeds. 4.) Add phosphorous in the form of SSP so that calcium, sulphur also available so that yield increases.
Intercultural Operations:
Thinning should be done at 15th day crop, in order to remove excess plants. Hoeing operations should be done at 20, 25th day crop.
Flowering and Maturity Stages:
Flowers are white in colour, flowering followed by fruit development. Flowering stage is the critical stage for irrigation. Harvesting can be done when 70% of the seeds matured. When the leaves turn yellow & start dropping & the bottom capsules are lemon yellow by pulling out the plant.
Harvesting Methods:
Cut the root portion & stack the plants in bundles for 3-4 days when the leaves will fall off.
Yield For Different Cultivation Methods:
Yield differs according to the variety: Yield between 200 - 600 kg/Acre.
Post Harvest Handling:
Drying: Dry the plants until the correct moisture content for storage is attained to prevent rotting. Threshing: Separation of grains from the plants. Sorting & Grading: Grade the grains on the basis of quality factors & Sort out bad, rotten (or) broken grains from the good produce. 4.) Cleaning: Separated grain is cleaned and then dried. Packaging: Pack in bags for convenient handling. Storage: Place the produce in appropriate stores to avoid contamination & spoilage.
Organic Products can be used:
FYM: Reduces the usage of 20-25% Nitrogen Fertilizer.
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