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Agri Panchangam

Crop Name:  Red gram

Agriculture Panchangam
Soil and Climatic Conditions:
1.) May be grown well, on a wide range of soils varying from sandy loams to clay loams. 2.)Red gram can be grown with a temperature ranging from 26?c to 30?c in the rainy season (June to October) and 17?c to 22?c in the post rainy (November to March) season.
Seed Rate:
1.) Kharif: 2-3kg/Acre, Rabi: 6-8kg/Acre.
Seed Treatment:
1.) Seed treatment with fungicides like Bavistin 1g/kg seed. 2.) Captan (or) Thiram @ 2.5g/kg seed before sowing effectively controls fungi & reduces incidence of both seed & soil borne fungi.
Field Preparation:
1.) Prepare the field by ploughing for fine tilth & form channels & seed beds.
Types Of Cultivation:
1.) Seeds are generally broadcasted and line sowing. 2.) Line sowing is superior over the broadcasting. 3.) Broadcasting results in uneven population which finally results in low yield.
1.) Kharif: 150cm x 20cm (or) 180cm x 20cm for row to row and plant to plant. 2.) Rabi: 45-90cm x 10cm for row to row and plant to plant.
1.) Red gram + Groundnut (2:2). 2.) Red gram + Green gram/Black gram/Bengal gram/Soyabean (2:1).
Weed Management:
1.) Pre-emergence application of Pendimethalin 30% 1.0-1.5 lit/Acre (or) Alachlor 50% lit/Acre. 2.) At 20, 25 days seedlings for removal any grassy weeds are present then spray Quizalofop ethyl 5% 400ml/Acre. 3.) Along with grassy weeds if broad leaf weeds are present then spray Imazethapyr 5% 300ml/Acre.
Water Management:
1.) Red gram grown in kharif does not require any irrigation. 2.) The critical periods for irrigation are flower initiation & pod filling stages.
Nutrient Management:
1.) FYM: 2 tons/Acre add during last ploughing. 2.) Nitrogen: - Kharif 8kg/Acre, Rabi 16kg/Acre. 3.) Phosphorous: 20kg/Acre in both Kharif & Rabi. 4.) Potash: 8kg/Acre.
Intercultural Operations:
1.) Hand weeding & thinning in order to reduce the competition. 2.) At 30, 65 days seedling weeding should be done.
Flowering and Maturity Stages:
1.) The Red gram is said to be indeterminate in growth habit where the flowering goes on continuously over the months on the same plant. 2.) Pods attain physiological maturity at 40 days after 50% flowering. 3.) Harvesting should be done when 80-85% of the pods turn brown.
Harvesting Methods:
1.) Traditionally Red gram plants are harvested by cutting the stem at the base by sickle.
Yield For Different Cultivation Methods:
1.) Kharif: 6-8 Quintals, Rabi: 5-6 Quintals.
Post Harvest Handling:
1.) Pre-drying: Harvested product is dried in order to undergo threshing. 2.) Threshing: Separation of grains from the plants. 3.) Drying: Grains are dried until the correct moisture content for storage is attained to prevent rotting. 4.) Sorting & Grading: Grade the grains on the basis of quality factors & Sort out bad, rotten (or) broken grains from the good produce. 5.) Cleaning: Separated grain is cleaned and then dried. 6.) Packaging: Pack in bags for convenient handling. 7.) Storage: Place the produce in appropriate stores to avoid contamination & spoilage.
Organic Products can be used:
1.) Treat the seeds with Rhizobium culture can increase the yield up to 20-30%. 2.) Farm Yard Manure (FYM) reduces the usage of 20-25% Nitrogen Fertilizer.
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