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Agri Panchangam

Crop Name:  Paddy

Agriculture Panchangam
Soil and Climatic Conditions:
1.) Rice is adaptable to all kinds of soils. The best soils are Clay loams. 2.) Optimum temperature is 20 to 35oc.
Seed Rate:
1.) Transplanting - 20-25kg, Direct Seedling: 15 kg, SRI Method: 2kg, Machinery: 12-15kg.
Seed Treatment:
1.) Seed treatment with Carbendazim 50% WP - 3g/Kg Seed.
Field Preparation:
1.)Puddling is the reorientation of soil particles at high moisture content due to cultivation, which results in soil particles becoming oriented in respect of each other which causes an increase in bulk density and a large decrease in non-capillary porosity.
Types Of Cultivation:
1.) Direct Seeding/Transplanting is adapted in low land rice after puddling & SRI method.
1.) Transplanting - Kharif: 15 x 15 cm or 15 x 20 cm, Rabi: 15 x 10 cm with late tillering varieties (or) overaged seedlings. Spacing may be even up to 15 x 10 cm (or) 20 x 10 cm. However, avoid close planting in endemic areas of BPH incidence.
Weed Management:
1.) Nursery - At 7th (or) 8th day for Ooda (Barnyard Grass) - Butachlor (or) Benthiocarb 1.5lit/200lit water. 2.) During the weedicide application avoid water level of 5cm (Maintain 2-2.5 cm of water). 3.) At 14, 15 days seedling crop Cyhalofop butyl 10% 400ml/200 lit water. 4.) Magani: Ooda - Butachlor 50% 1-1.5ml (or) Anilophos 30% 500ml (or) Pretilachlor 50% 500ml add anyone with 25kg dry sand at 3-4 days transplanting. 5.) If Grassy weeds, Thunga, Broad Leaf weeds are present then use Butachlor 5% granules, 2, 4-D Ethyl Ester 4% granules mix in 20kg sand at 3-4 days transplanted crop & at 15-20 days Bispyribac sodium 80-120 ml. 6.) At 25-30 days for Broad Leaf Weeds if level is more then use 2, 4-D Sodium Salt 80% in 200 lit water.
Water Management:
1.) During transplantation keep thin film of water. 2.) During the tillering stages of the crop growth 2-3 cm water should be present. 3.) Reproductive stage, Panicle emergence, Booting, Heading & Flowering stage 5cm water should be present. Decrease water level 10 days before Harvesting.
Nutrient Management:
1.) Kharif (Acre) - Nitrogen 32-36kg, Phosphorous 24kg, Potash 16-20kg. 2.) Rabi (Acre) - Nitrogen 48kg, Phosphorous 24kg, Potash 20kg. 3.) Apply Nitrogen in 3 split doses (Last Ploughing, Tillering stage, and Panicle initiation stage). 4.) Apply total Phosphorous during the last ploughing. 5.) For Black loamy soils apply total amount of potash during the last ploughing but for the light soils apply in 2 split doses at last ploughing, panicle initiation stage. 6.) Urea 50kg along with 10kg Neem powder (or) with 250kg wet soil & then left for 2 days then broadcast in the field so that efficiency of nitrogen increases. 7.) Complex fertilizers should be add only during the last ploughing.
Intercultural Operations:
1.) Weeding, Thinning & Gap filling with seeds staggers the period of germination and emergence.
Flowering and Maturity Stages:
1.) The flowering & grain filling stages begin within 1-5 days after heading & grain filling is complete within 3 weeks. 2.) Maintain 5cm water during this stages & gradually reduce the water level 10 days before harvesting. 3.) The crop should be cut when 80-85% of the grains are straw (Yellow coloured). 4.) Grain moisture content ideally is between 20-25% & grains should be firm but not brittle.
Harvesting Methods:
1.) Harvesting is done either manually or mechanical means.
Yield For Different Cultivation Methods:
1.) On an average of 30-35 bags/Acre but more yield is recorded in SRI Method comparatively
Post Harvest Handling:
1.) Threshing: It is the process of beating paddy in order to separate grains from the straw. 2.) Drying: It is the process of removal of excess moisture from the grains. 3.) Parboiling: It is the process to improve its milling quality, nutritive value, cooking quality, storability. 4.) Milling: Rice grain is transformed to human consumption. 5.) Cleaning & Hulling: It is the process of removal of hull from the kernel. 6.) Polishing: It is process of removal of bran layer. 7.) Quality & Grading: Separating broken, fine grains. 8.) Storage: Store the grains in a gunny bags in pest free area.
Organic Products can be used:
1.) FYM & Compost: Reduces the usage of 20-25% Nitrogen Fertilizer. 2.) Algae, Azolla, Azatobacter, Azospirillum, Fusobacteria reduces the usage of 10-20% Nitrogen, Phosphorous Fertilizers. 3.) Algae - Use of Algae gives 10kg of Nitrogen to the field. Mix 4kg of Algae/acre with sand then broadcast. 4.) Azolla - During the ploughing add 50kg of SSP/acre & give thin film of water, add 100-150kg Azolla left for 2-3 weeks then plough the land. This gives 12kg of Nitrogen to the field. 5.) Azotobacter: Mix 200-400g of culture with seeds/acre (or) Mix 1kg culture with 20kg FYM and then broadcast in the field. This gives 8-16kg Nitrogen to the field. 6.) Azospirillum: Mix 200-400g of culture with seeds/acre (or) Mix 1kg culture with 20kg FYM and then broadcast in the field. This gives 8-16kg Nitrogen to the field. 7.) Fusobacteria: Mix 200-400g of culture with seeds/acre (or) Mix 1kg culture with 20kg FYM and then broadcast in the field. This gives Phosphorous to the field.
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