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Agri Panchangam

Crop Name:  Maize

Agriculture Panchangam
Soil and Climatic Conditions:
1.) Maize requires a well-drained sandy loam soil with organic matter. 2.) It thrives well in soil pH - 5.5 to 8.0. 3.) Maize can be grown in temperate high lands, tropical as well as sub-tropical regions.
Seed Rate:
1.) Normal Grain: 8 kg/Acre, Sweet corn: 4kg/Acre, Pop Corn: 5kg/Acre, Baby corn: 10kg/Acre, Fodder: 16kg/Acre.
Seed Treatment:
1.) Seed treatment with Mancozeb (or) Thiram (or) Captan 3g/kg seeds before sowing in the field.
Field Preparation:
1.) Plough the land 3-4 times according to the type of cultivation prepare the land. 2.) Add 10 tons of FYM during the last ploughing.
Types Of Cultivation:
1.) Generally raised seed bed (Ridge) planting is considered as best planting method for maize during monsoon and winter seasons both under excess moisture as well as limited water availability. 2.) Zero till-planting: Maize can be successfully sown without any primary tillage under no-till situation. 3.) Conventional till flat planting: Under heavy weed infestation where chemical/herbicide weed management is uneconomical in no-till. 4.) Furrow planting: To prevent evaporative losses of water during spring season from the soil under flat as well as raised bed planting is higher & hence crop suffers due to moisture stress. 5.) Transplanting: Under intensive cropping systems where it is not possible to vacate the field on time for planting of winter maize, under such situation it is advisable to grow nursery & transplant the seedlings in furrow.
Spacing:
1.) Normal Grain: 60 cm x 20 cm for row to row and plant to plant. 2.) Sweet Corn: 60 cm x 20 cm for row to row and plant to plant. 3.) Pop Corn: 60 cm x 20 cm for row to row and plant to plant. 4.) Baby Corn: 45 cm x 20 cm for row to row and plant to plant. 5.) Fodder: 45 cm x 10 cm for row to row and plant to plant.
Intercropping:
1.) Intercropping Maize with Red gram (3:1), Green gram (2:2), Black gram (2:2), Soya bean (2:2), Cowpea (2:2).
Weed Management:
1.) Pre-emergence application of Atrazine @ 800g (Acre)/200 lit water is recommended for weed control. 2.) If Pulses are grown as intercrop then use pendimethalin 1 lit (Acre)/200 lit water. 3.) If Broad Leaf Weeds are present then use 2, 4-D Sodium Salt 500g (Acre)/200 lit water (Not recommended in Intercrop).
Water Management:
1.) For Kharif Maize, irrigation at early knee-high, tasselling and 50% Silking stages are to be given. 2.) For Rabi Maize, first irrigation is to be applied 3-4 weak after seedling emergence, subsequently at 4-5 weeks till March and thereafter at 1-2 weeks interval.
Nutrient Management:
1.) Normal Grain (Kharif) - Nitrogen: 72-80 kg/Acre, Phosphorous: 24kg/Acre, Potash: 20kg/Acre, (Rabi) - Nitrogen: 80-96 kg/Acre, Phosphorous: 32kg/Acre, Potash: 32kg/Acre. 2.) Sweet Corn (Kharif) - Nitrogen: 60-72kg/Acre, Phosphorous: 24kg/Acre, Potash: 20kg/Acre, (Rabi) - Nitrogen: 72-80kg/Acre, Phosphorous: 24kg/Acre, Potash: 20kg/Acre. 3.) Pop Corn: - Nitrogen: 32kg/Acre, Phosphorous: 24kg/Acre, Potash: 20kg/Acre, (Rabi) - Nitrogen: 40kg/Acre, Phosphorous: 24kg/Acre, Potash: 20kg/Acre. 4.) Baby Corn: Nitrogen: 48kg/Acre, Phosphorous: 20kg/Acre, Potash: 16kg/Acre, (Rabi) - Nitrogen: 60-72kg/Acre, Phosphorous: 24kg/Acre, Potash: 20kg/Acre. 5.) Nitrogen should be applied in 3 splits, 1/3rd at sowing time, 1/3rd at 30-35 days crop and remaining 1/3rd at 50-55 days crop (Rainfed crop). 6.) Nitrogen should be applied 1/4th at sowing time, 1/4th at 25-30 days crop, 1/4th at 45-50 days crop & remaining 1/4th at 60-65 days crop (Irrigated crop). 7.) Entire dose of P2o5 & half amount of K2o add during sowing time & remaining potash add during the flowering stage. 8.) If Zn deficiency is observed 20kg ZnSO4/Acre (2g/lit water).
Intercultural Operations:
1.) Thinning should be done after 10 days of germination keeping one plant per hill. 2.) At knee high stage (about 35 days after germination) the crop plants should be earthed-up followed by light hand weeding. 3.) The second earthing up should be done at 60 days after germination of the crop, it may slightly vary in respective to locality.
Flowering and Maturity Stages:
1.) Reproductive Stage: Silking - This stage begins when silk is visible outside the husk, Blister - Kernels are white on the outside & resemble a blister, Milk - Kernel is yellow outside while fluid is now milky white due to accumulating starch, Dough - Continued starch accumulation causes the milky inner fluid to thicken to a pasty consistency, Dent - Kernels are drying down from the top where a small hard layer of starch is forming, Maturity - A Black or Brown abscission layer forms moving progressively from tip to basal kernel of the ear. 2.) Maturity can be identified 25 to 30 days after tasselling. 3.) Harvesting Indices for cobs is moisture content should be less than 22-25%. 4.) Husk colour turns pale brown.
Harvesting Methods:
1.) Mostly harvesting is done manually by hand.
Yield For Different Cultivation Methods:
1.) On an average of 35-45 Quintals/Acre.
Post Harvest Handling:
1.) Dehusking: Removing of outer shell either just after harvesting or after sun drying. 2.) Shelling: Grains obtained from the dehusked cobs. 3.) Drying: Grains are dried until the correct moisture content for storage is attained to prevent rotting. 4.) Sorting & Grading: Grade the grains on the basis of quality factors & Sort out bad, rotten (or) broken grains from the good produce. 5.) Cleaning: Winnow to remove chaff from the grains. 6.) Packaging: Pack in bags for convenient handling. 7.) Storage: Place the produce in appropriate stores to avoid contamination & spoilage.
Organic Products can be used:
1.) FYM: Reduces the usage of 20-25% Nitrogen Fertilizer.
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