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Agri Panchangam

Crop Name:  Groundnut

Agriculture Panchangam
Soil and Climatic Conditions:
Groundnut is perfectly grown in a well-drained sandy loam, or sandy clay loam soil. Deep well-drained soils with a pH of 6.5-7.0 and high fertility, are ideal for groundnut. The optimum temperature for rapid germination & seedling development is 30°c.
Seed Rate:
Kharif- 50-60 kg/Acre, Rabi- 60-75 kg/Acre.
Seed Treatment:
Seed treatment with 1 g Tebuconazole 2 D.S (or) 3 g Mancozeb and Trichoderma viride powder. Seed treatment with 1 ml Imidacloprid 600 F.S in 6 ml water (For Root Grub & Peanut Stem Necrosis Virus).
Field Preparation:
Deep summer ploughing which helps in decreasing pest & weed control. Land should be ploughed well before sowing.
Types Of Cultivation:
Seeds are sown behind the plough (or) with the use of tractor drawn seed drill, Hand dibbling.
Bunch type Kharif: 30cm x 10cm for row to row and plant to plant. Runner type Kharif: 30 cm x 15 cm for row to row and plant to plant. Bunch type Rabi: 22.5 cm x 10 cm for row to row and plant to plant. Runner type Rabi: 22.5 cm x 15 cm for row to row and plant to plant.
Groundnut + Red gram (7:1) 2.) Groundnut + Castor (7:1) 3.) Groundnut + Bajra/Jowar (6:2)
Weed Management:
Pre-emergence application of Alachlor 50% 1 lit/Acre (or) Pendimethalin 30% 1.3 - 1.6 lit/Acre (or) Butachlor 50% 1.25 - 1.5 lit in 200 lit water. At 21st day crop weeds 2-3 leaves observed then use Imazethapyr 10% 300 ml/Acre (or) Quizalofop ethyl 5% 400 ml/Acre in 200 lit water. Weed free before 45 days crop.
Water Management:
Water requirement 400-450 mm. Required irrigations 8-9.) 1st irrigation at before sowing, 2nd irrigation at 20-25 days crop. Next irrigation are followed by 7-10 days intervals. Last irrigation is given at before 15 days harvest. Irrigation can be given by Sprinkler (or) Drip.
Nutrient Management:
FYM: 4-5 tons/Acre add during the last ploughing. Rainfed/Acre: SSP - 100 kg, MOP - 33 kg, Urea - 18kg add during time of sowing. Irrigated/Acre: SSP - 100 kg, MOP - 33 kg add during the last ploughing, Urea - 18 kg add during time of sowing & 9kg urea add after 30 days crop (Initial flowering stage). 4.) Rainfed: Gypsum - 200kg/Acre add during 45 days crop. 5.) Irrigated: Gypsum - 200 kg/Acre add during Initial flowering stage. If Zinc deficiency is observed then use 400 g Znso4 in 200 lit water, spray 2 times with 7 days interval. Borax 4 kg/Acre add during time of sowing.
Intercultural Operations:
Earthingup should be done at 20-25 days crop. Hand weeding or hoeing should be done at 20-25 days crop. No intercultural operations should be done after 45 days crop.
Flowering and Maturity Stages:
Flowering in groundnut begins 20-30 days after emergence. During the initial flowering stage add Urea & Gypsum (Irrigated crop). Maturity Indices: 70-80% leaves, branches become yellow in colour, interior portion of the pod become black in colour.
Harvesting Methods:
Loosen the soil around the plant before harvesting, Pull out the entire plants & shake the excess soil from the roots.
Yield For Different Cultivation Methods:
Yield differs according to the variety. Kharif: 800-1000 kg/Acre. Rabi: 1400-1600 kg/Acre.
Post Harvest Handling:
Pre-drying: Harvested product is dried in order to reduce the moisture content of the groundnut pods. Plucking/Stripping: Separation of groundnut pods from the plant after sufficient drying. Sorting & Grading: Grade the grains on the basis of quality factors & Sort out bad, rotten (or) broken grains from the good produce. Cleaning: Separated grain is cleaned and then dried. Packaging: Pack in bags for convenient handling. Storage: Place the produce in appropriate stores to avoid contamination & spoilage.
Organic Products can be used:
If growing Groundnut for the first time then mix the seeds with Rhizobium in order to increase the yield. FYM: Reduces the usage of 20-25% Nitrogen Fertilizer. Seed treatment with Trichoderma viride 10 g/kg seed for Root rot, Stem rot, seed rot.
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