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Agri Panchangam

Crop Name:  Cotton

Agriculture Panchangam
Soil and Climatic Conditions:
1. Cotton can grow in almost all well drained soils. Black soils are more suitable for growing cotton. 2. Cotton grows well at temperature of 24oc.
Seed Rate:
Seed Rate varies based on variety: 1. Desavali variety: 4-5kg/Acre. 2. American variety: 3-4kg/Acre. 3. Hybrid variety: 0.75-1kg/Acre.
Seed Treatment:
1. Seed treatment with Imidacloprid 70% WS (or) Thiamethoxam 70% WS 4-5g/kg seed (For sucking pest). 2. Seed treatment with Carbendazim 50% WP 2g/kg seed (For Root rot disease).
Field Preparation:
1. Prepare the field to get a fine tilth, add FYM during the last ploughing & form ridges & furrows.
Types Of Cultivation:
1. Line Sowing: Seeds are sown in the main field in a line. This method ensures better germination, reduces seed requirement & facilitates intercultural operations.
Spacing varies according to the variety: 1. Desavali variety: 60cm x 22cm for row to row and plant to plant. 2. American variety: 90-120cm x 45-60cm for row to row and plant to plant. 3. Hybrid variety: 90-120cm x 45-60cm for row to row and plant to plant.
1. Intercrops like Cowpea, Korra, Soyabean, Green gram, Black gram, Beans with Cotton in the ratio of 2:1. 2. Intercrop like Red gram with cotton in the ratio of 4-6:1.
Weed Management:
1. Pre-emergence application of Fluchloralin 45% EC lit/Acre (or) Pendimethalin 30% 1.3-1.6 lit/Acre (or) Alachlor 50% 1.5-2.5 lit/Acre. 2. To remove the grassy weeds spray Quizalofop ethyl 5 EC 400ml/200 lit water. 3. To remove broad leaf weeds spray Pyrithiobac Sodium 10 EC 250ml/200 lit water. 4. If intercultural operations are impossible due to rain in kharif season then spray Paraquat Dichloride 24% SL (or) Glyphosate 2lit, 2kg Urea/Ammonium Sulphate in 200lit water.
Water Management:
1. Critical stages for irrigation in cotton: Flowering and Boll Formation stages. 2. Irrigate after the application of fertilizers. 3. Kharif: 2-3 irrigations, Rabi: 6 irrigations are necessary.
Nutrient Management:
1. Desavali variety: 8kg Nitrogen in 3 split doses at 30, 60, 90 days crop. 8kg Phosphorous add during the last ploughing. 2. American variety: 36kg Nitrogen, 18kg Potash in 3 split doses at 30, 60, 90 days crop. 18kg Phosphorous add during the last ploughing. 3. Hybrids: 48kg Nitrogen, 24kg Potash in 3 split doses at 30, 60, 90 days crop. 24kg Phosphorous add during the last ploughing.
Intercultural Operations:
1. Thinning should be done in order to remove excess plants. 2. Hand weeding, Hoeing operations are mainly intended to control weeds & provide aeration to the soil. 3. Gap filling should be done within 10 days of sowing.
Flowering and Maturity Stages:
1. Flowering stages is the critical stage for irrigation. 2. Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) 10 PPM spray 1 (or) 2 times with 10-15 days interval (Flower and Fruit drop control). 3. Maturity Indices: Bolls fully open and the fluffy white cotton is exposed.
Harvesting Methods:
1. Harvesting can be done by hand (or) with the help of a cotton picking machine.
Yield For Different Cultivation Methods:
Yield varies according to the variety: 1. Desavali variety: On an average of 10 quintals/ha. 2. American variety: On an average of 25 quintals/ha. 3. Hybrid variety: On an average of 25-35 quintals/ha.
Post Harvest Handling:
1. Seed Separation: In the initial stage the seed from the cotton should be separated from the boll. 2. Drying: After separating the cotton from the seed it is necessary to dry them in a shade. Exposure to sunlight should be totally avoided. 3. Sorting & Grading: Immature, Poor quality cotton are separated from the good one. This is sought to be achieved by grading the produce in conformity with certain accepted quality standards viz. shape, size, form, weight & other physical & technical characteristics. 4. Packing: Proper packing of cotton will protect it from damages & contamination. Materials used for packing of cotton should be more versatile & in no way it should hamper the condition of cotton. 5. Transportation: After proper packing of cotton it has to be transported to different places preferred by the farmer to sell the cotton. While loading & unloading of cotton due care should be taken into account not letting the cotton to trample or crush.
Organic Products can be used:
1. Farm Yard Manure (FYM) reduces the usage of 20-25% Nitrogen Fertilizer. 2. Seed treatment with Bio-Fertilizers like Azospirillum (or) Phosphobacteria is used for seed treatment. Mix the culture with FYM. This gives 8-16kg Nitrogen to the field.
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