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Agri Panchangam

Crop Name:  Chilli

Agriculture Panchangam
Soil and Climatic Conditions:
Chilli can be grown in all types of soils but sandy loamy, clay loamy soils are best suitable. Soils must be well drained & well aerated. pH is 6-7. Ideal temperature is 20-25°c. Fruit development is adversely affected at temperature of 37°c.
Seed Rate:
For Nursery/cent - 650g (Sufficient for 01 acre), For Direct sowing - 2.5kg/Acre.
Seed Treatment:
Firstly treat the seeds with Imidacloprid 8g (For sucking pest), next treat the seeds with 3g Captan (or) Mancozeb.
Field Preparation:
Prepare a nursery bed (01 cent) & add sufficient seeds in the bed (650g), meanwhile add 80g Fipronil granules/cent for sucking pest. Add 1kg Neem powder/cent. Bordeaux mixture (or) Copper Oxychloride 3g/lit water spray at 9th, 13th day nursery bed. Plough the main field 3-4 times. Add 10 tons of FYM (or) Green manure crops like Dhaincha, Sun hemp, Pillipesara grow these in the field and incorporating the same into the soil, this increase the fertility of the soil.
Types Of Cultivation:
Direct sowing, Transplanting (Transplant 6 weeks plant). Better results are gained when chilli seedlings are raised in a nursery & then transplanted because they are more resistant to pest & diseases. Seed rate can be reduced, Optimum population can be maintained as only healthy seedlings are used for transplanting.
Rainfed crop: 60cm x 15cm for row to row and plant to plant. Irrigated crop: 60cm x 60cm (or) 75cm x 60cm (or) 90cm x 60cm for row to row and plant to plant.
Marigold, Bhendi, Garlic, Groundnut, Onion with the ratio of 1:1. Border crops like Jowar (or) Maize 2-3 rows, act as a barrier.
Weed Management:
Fluchloralin 45% lit/Acre spray before 1 (or) 2 days before sowing. Pendimethalin 30% 1.3-1.6 lit (or) Oxyfluorfen 23.5% 200ml/Acre spray before 1 (or) 2 days before sowing.
Water Management:
Flowering & Fruit development in chilli are the critical stages. Regular irrigation is an important factor for the successful production of chilli crop. 1st irrigation is given at the time of transplanting & the subsequent irrigations are given once in a week (or) 10 days. In light soils irrigation is given at 10-12 days interval, in black soils at 3 week intervals & in summer at 5-6 days interval. After every harvest irrigation is given.
Nutrient Management:
Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Potash should be used in the form of Urea, SSP, and MOP. Rainfed crop: 60kg N-40kg P2O5-50Kg, K2O-50kg/ha. The whole of FYM, Phosphorus and half N and K2O should be applied in the last ploughing before transplanting and the rest of N and K2O is applied as top dressing two months after transplanting. 100 Kg N-60kg, P2O5-75 kg, K2O-50/ha. Entire dose of Phosphorus + Half N and Potash are applied as basal in the last ploughing. The remaining dose of N and Potash applied as top dressing in two equal split doses at one month interval after transplanting. Foliar application of Urea @ 2% is beneficial for this crop when raised under rainfed conditions.
Intercultural Operations:
Hoeing should be done at 25, 30th day with 15, 20 days interval, Gap filling should be done at 7th day after transplanting.
Flowering and Maturity Stages:
Flowering starts 40-45 days after transplanting. Flower and Fruit drop is a serious problem in chilli. This can be controlled by foliar spraying of Planofix (NAA-Naphthalene Acetic Acid) twice with 15 days interval (or) 2, 4-D (2, 4-Dichloro Phenoxy Acetic Acid) at flower bud initiation stage reduces flower drop and increases fruit set and yield. Application of Ethrel (or) Ethephon foliar spray increases fruit set and yield. Harvesting can be done in 2 stages: Green vegetable, dry chilli. Green chilli are harvested before they change from green to red. Dry chilli changes from green to red after that harvesting should be done.
Harvesting Methods:
Hand Pickings are generally made because of different picking stages.
Yield For Different Cultivation Methods:
Yield varies based on different varieties used. G-3: 15-18 quintals/ha, G-4: 40-45 quintals/ha, G-5: 40-50 quintals/ha, C.A.960: 50-55 quintals/ha, C.A.1068: 35-40 quintals/ha, LAM.305: 50-60 quintals/ha, LAM.334: 60-65 quintals/ha.
Post Harvest Handling:
Drying: Chillies should be dried until the correct moisture content for storage is attained to prevent rotting. Sorting & Grading: Grade the chillies on the basis of quality factors & Sort out immature, discoloured, bad, rotten & broken from the good produce. Packaging: Generally chillies are packed in gunny bags. Storage: Place the produce in appropriate stores to avoid contamination & spoilage.
Organic Products can be used:
FYM: Reduces the usage of 20-25% Nitrogen Fertilizer. Green manure crops like Dhaincha, Sun hemp, Pillipesara grow these in the field and incorporating the same into the soil, this increase the fertility of the soil. Place Yellow sticky traps in the field in order to monitor the Whitefly.
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