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Agri Panchangam

Crop Name:  Black gram

Agriculture Panchangam
Soil and Climatic Conditions:
It can be grown in all types of soils, does well on heavier soils such as black cotton soils which retain moisture better. It grows best in hot and humid condition with ideal temperature range between 25-35°c.
Seed Rate:
Kharif: 8-10kg/Acre. Rabi: 8-10 kg/Acre (Metta), 16 kg/Acre (Magani Broadcast). Summer: 10-12 kg/Acre (Aruthadi), 16-18 kg/Acre (Magani Broadcast).
Seed Treatment:
Seed treatment with Thiram/Captan/Mancozeb/Carbendazim 2.5 g/kg seed & 5 g Imidacloprid (or) 5 g Thiamethoxam - for sucking pest control.
Field Preparation:
Prepare the field by ploughing for fine tilth & form channels & seed beds.
Types Of Cultivation:
Seeds can broadcast 2-3 days before paddy harvesting. Line Sowing: Seeds are sown in the main field in a line. This method ensures better germination, reduces seed requirement & facilitates intercultural operations.
Spacing:
30 cm x 10 cm for row to row and plant to plant, Summer: 22.5 cm x 10cm for row to row and plant to plant.
Intercropping:
Black gram can be grown as intercrop in Cotton, Red gram. Black gram: Cotton/Rabi Red gram - 3:1, Black gram: Kharif Red gram - 7:1.
Weed Management:
Pre-emergence application of Pendimethalin 30% 1.0-1.5 lit/Acre (or) Alachlor 50% lit/Acre. At 20, 25 days seedlings for removal of Ooda (Barnyard grass) spray Fenoxaprop Ethyl 9% 250ml/200 lit water. Along with Ooda if any grassy weeds are present then spray Quizalofop ethyl 5% 400ml/Acre. Along with grassy weeds if broad leaf weeds are present then spray Imazethapyr 5% 200ml/Acre.
Water Management:
Irrigation required at 25-30 day crop, after 55 day crop. Water should be cut down during the pod maturing time. Sufficient moisture is essential during germination, flowering, and seed filling stages.
Nutrient Management:
FYM: 2000kg/Acre add during ploughing, Nitrogen: 8kg/Acre, Phosphorous: 20kg/Acre & Potash: 8kg/Acre add before seed sowing. If black gram is cultivation in Paddy (Magani) then no need of using fertilizers. In Intercropping Black gram: Cotton/Rabi Red gram- 5kg seed, Nitrogen- 6kg, Phosphorous- 15kg, Potash- 6kg (For Black gram/Acre). In Intercropping Black gram: Kharif Red gram- 6kg seed, Nitrogen- 7kg, Phosphorous- 17.)5kg, Potash- 7kg (For Black gram/Acre).
Intercultural Operations:
Hoeing should be done at 20-25th day, Hand weeding, Thinning should be followed.
Flowering and Maturity Stages:
30 days after 50% flowering harvesting can be done. Maturity indices can be identified by majority of the pods in brown in colour.
Harvesting Methods:
Hand picking the matured pods (or) Cutting the whole plants.
Yield For Different Cultivation Methods:
On an Average 6-9 Quintals/Acre.
Post Harvest Handling:
Pre-drying: Harvested product is dried in order to undergo threshing. Threshing: Separation of grains from the plants. Drying: Grains are dried until the correct moisture content for storage is attained to prevent rotting. Sorting & Grading: Grade the grains on the basis of quality factors & Sort out bad, rotten (or) broken grains from the good produce. Cleaning: Separated grain is cleaned and then dried. Packaging: Pack in bags for convenient handling. Storage: Place the produce in appropriate stores to avoid contamination & spoilage.
Organic Products can be used:
If growing Black gram for the first time then mix the seeds with Rhizobium culture in order to increase the yield. Farm Yard Manure (FYM) reduces the usage of 20-25% Nitrogen Fertilizer.
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