Crop Name: Sorghum
- Soil and Climatic Conditions:
- Sorghum is grown on a variety of soil types but the clayey loam soil rich in humus is found to be the most ideal soil with pH 6.0-7.5. It may be successfully grown under atmospheric temperature ranging between 15°c
- Seed Rate:
- 3-4 kg/Acre (varies based on type of cultivation).
- Seed Treatment:
- Seed treatment with Thiram (or) Captan 3 g/kg seed. To control Shoot fly treat the seeds with Thiamethoxam 3 g/kg seed.
- Field Preparation:
- Deep summer ploughing after Rabi crop is harvested and leaving the soil exposed to sun until onset of monsoon is a common practice. With the onset of monsoon the land should be ploughed twice but the soil for grain crop should be pulverised for a fine tilth by harrowing. If desired, field should be levelled before sowing so that rainwater may be well distributed throughout the field.
- Types Of Cultivation:
- Direct sowing & Transplanting. Transplanted crop has advantages like Shoot fly can be controlled in the nursery itself, Chlorotic & Downy mildew symptoms in the main field can be minimised, Seed rate can be reduced, Optimum population can be maintained as only healthy seedlings are used for transplanting.
- 45 cm x 12-15 cm for row to row and plant to plant.
- Kharif Sorghum: Red gram (2:1) (or) Sunflower (or) Green gram (or) Soyabean. Sorghum: Fodder Cowpea (2:2) besides providing green fodder was also found improve soil fertility & in checking of weed growth.
- Weed Management:
- Pre-emergence application of Atrazine 50% @ 800g (Acre)/200 lit water is recommended for weed control. In order to control the weed Jonnamalle 50g Ammonium Sulphate (or) 200g Urea/lit water (or) use 2, 4-D Sodium Salt 2g/lit water.
- Water Management:
- Most critical growth stages for irrigation are knee-height stage, flowering and grain filling stages at which the crop should be ensured for proper moisture conditions so that the crop does not suffer from moisture stress.
- Nutrient Management:
- FYM 4 tons/Acre add during the last ploughing. Irrigated (Acre): Nitrogen-32-40kg, Phosphorous-24kg, Potash-16kg. Rainfed (Acre): Nitrogen-24-32kg, Phosphorous-16kg, Potash-12kg.
- Intercultural Operations:
- Manual weeding and hoeing help in solving the weed problem but it is possible only during rabi and arid cropping seasons while rains do not permit the manual weeding or hoeing during kharif season.
- Flowering and Maturity Stages:
- Maturity can be identified 40 days after flowering. Harvesting index: Ideal Moisture level is about 20%. When crop matures the leaves turn yellow & present a dried up appearance. Formation of black layer at placental region, this is the physiological maturity of the sorghum.
- Harvesting Methods:
- Harvest the crop by cutting the ear heads separately & cut the straw after a week. In case of tall varieties, cut the stem at 10-15cm above the ground level & then separate the ear heads & stack the straw.
- Yield For Different Cultivation Methods:
- On an Average 12-15 Quintals/Acre.
- Post Harvest Handling:
- Drying: Dry the ear heads until the correct moisture content for storage is attained to prevent rotting. Threshing: Grain is separated from the ear heads. Cleaning: Separated grain is cleaned and then dried. Packaging: Pack in bags for convenient handling. Storage: Place the produce in appropriate stores to avoid contamination & spoilage.
- Organic Products can be used:
- FYM: Reduces the usage of 20-25% Nitrogen Fertilizer.
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