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Agri Panchangam

Crop Name:  Cauliflower

Agriculture Panchangam
Soil and Climatic Conditions:
1.) Cultivation of cauliflower is done mainly on sandy to heavy soils rich in organic matter. 2.) Early crops prefer light soil while late crops thrive better on heavier soils due to retention of moisture. 3.) A pH range of 5.5-6.5 is considered as optimum for growing cauliflower. 4.) For good seed germination, a temperature of 10-21?c is required. A temperature range of 15-21?c. is considered as optimum for growth and curd formation of the crop.
Seed Rate:
1.) Seed Rate for Short duration varieties: 240-320g, Long duration varieties: 160-200g. 2.) Nursery (40 sq.m): 280-320g seed is sufficient for 40 sq.m seed bed, obtained plants from these bed is sufficient for 1 acre land.
Seed Treatment:
1.) Seed treatment with Thiram 3g/kg seed.
Field Preparation:
1.) Plough the land 4-5 times. 2.) Add 8-10 tons FYM, 32kg phosphorous, and 40kg potash during last ploughing. 3.) Prepare a separate nursery bed & sow the seeds while mixing with sand (or) compost. 4.) Cover the seedbed with dry leaves. 5.) Give regular irrigations up to seedling. 6.) Remove the dry leaves after seedling. 7.) For Damping off disease spray Copper Oxy Chloride 3g/lit water.
Types Of Cultivation:
1.) Transplanting method. 2.) Transplanting method: Transplant 25-30 days seedling plant to the main field. Damping off disease is controlled in the nursery itself. Optimum population can be maintained as only healthy seedlings are used for transplanting.
1.) For short duration varieties: 45cm x 45cm for row to row and plant to plant. 2.) For Long duration varieties: 60cm x 45cm for row to row and plant to plant.
Cauliflower can be intercropped with Onion, Snap Bean & Carrot in the ratio of 2:1.
Weed Management:
1.) Pre-emergence application of Pendimethalin 30% EC 1.25 lit/Acre (or) Alachlor 50% EC 1.0-1.2 lit/Acre.
Water Management:
1.) Cauliflower requires adequate soil moisture to maximise yield & quality, critical soil moisture stage for cauliflower is curd formation & enlargement. 2.) Light soils: Irrigations are usually applied at weekly intervals, Heavy soils: Irrigations are usually applied at 10 days intervals.
Nutrient Management:
1.) Nitrogen 24-32kg/Acre in 3 split doses at 25-30th day, 50-60th day, and 75-80th day. 2.) Phosphorous 32kg/Acre, Potash 40kg (in the form of SSP & DAP) add during the last ploughing. 3.) Boron deficiency: Borax 3g/lit water (Spray 2 weeks after transplanting & 2 weeks before curd formation).
Intercultural Operations:
1.) Hoeing should be done at 20-25th day crop to remove weeds & to make soil better aerated. 2.) Earthing up: In order to produce large sized curds, earth up the plant one month after transplanting. At the time of earthing up the plants are supported with soil to avoid toppling of the plant during curd formation. 3.) Blanching: Blanching is the operation protecting the curds from direct sunlight by covering them with leaves.
Flowering and Maturity Stages:
1.) Flowering stem is modified into Cauliflower. 2.) Adequate soil moisture should be maintained during the flowering stage. 3.) The best stage of maturity is determined by curd size & condition, it is ready for harvesting at 90-120 days. 4.) The head should be compact & not to be broken into segments.
Harvesting Methods:
1.) Cut the Cauliflower from the main stem but leave a few of the outer leaves attached to prolong the quality (Don?t remove the curd by snapping (or) twisting as it causes damage to the curd).
Yield For Different Cultivation Methods:
1.) On an average of 8.0-14.0 tons/Acre.
Post Harvest Handling:
1.) Field sorting: Field sorting of cauliflower should be done on farm to cut out unmarketable curds like diseased, damaged, infected. 2.) Trimming: Removal of unwanted parts which may otherwise make the cauliflower curd unappealing to consumers (or) may cause the curd to deteriorate rapidly. 3.) Sorting/Grading: Grade the curds on the basis of quality factors & Sort out bad, rotten from the good produce. 4.) Packaging: Pack in bags for convenient handling. 5.) Storage: Place the produce in appropriate stores to avoid contamination & spoilage.
Organic Products can be used:
1.) FYM: Reduces the usage of 20-25% Nitrogen Fertilizer. 2.) Bio fertilizers like Azotobacter (or) Azospirillum is used for seed treatment. Mix the culture with FYM and then broadcast in the field. This gives 8-16kg Nitrogen to the field.
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